ASTM D276 PDF
Methods D – 62 T, Identification of Fibers in Textiles were discontinued in 1 These test methods are under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee D13 on. ASTM Da() – Designation: D – 00a (Reapproved ) Standard Test Methods for Id. ASTM D – Free download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online for free. Identification of textile fibres.
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ASTM D – D — 00a Reapproved Standard Test Methods for Identication of Fibers in Textiles1 This standard is issued under the xed designation D ; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A superscript epsilon indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.
This standard has been approved for use by agencies of the Department of Defense. Reinstatement as a standard using the previously assigned designation was requested since the listed procedures were reliable and the text was considered to be the best available, though not all-inclusive.
Extensive editorial changes were made in various sections inand the methods were reinstated as D c276 Xstm methods have been revised completely, emphasizing infrared spectroscopic techniques for identifying man-made ber types.
Methods for determining several physical properties and solubility data useful for conrming infrared spectral identications have been included. The longitudinal and cross-section photographs of the various bers have been omitted since they are published elsewhere and the usefulness for identication is limited.
Extensive editorial changes have been made throughout the text. Many of the generic classes of man-made bers are produced by several manufacturers 2d76 sold under various trademark names as follows Note 1: Current edition approved Aug. Satm approved in Last previous edition approved in as D — 00a. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
Test Method 20 for Identication of Fibers in Textiles2 3. Numerically, birefringence is the difference between the maximum and minimum refractive indices.
Test results for ber density will also vary depending on the test method used. The last approved version of this historical standard is referenced on www.
The list does not include examples of bers from two or more generic classes of polymers spun into a single lament. Additional information on ber types and trademarks is given in References 1, 2, and 3.
Differences in tenacity, linear density, bulkiness, or the presence of inert delustrants normally do not interfere with analytic tests, but chemical modications for such purposes as increased dyeability with certain dyestuffs may affect the infrared spectra and some of the physical properties, particularly the melting point. Many generic classes of bers are sold with a variety of cross-section shapes designed for specic purposes.
These differences will be evident upon microscopical examination of the ber and may interfere with the measurements of refractive indices and birefringence.
ASTM D – Standard Test Methods for Identification of Fibers in Textiles
The analysis scheme based on solubility is very reliable. The infrared technique is a useful adjunct to the solubility test method. The other methods, especially microscopical examination are generally not suitable for positive identication of most man-made bers and are useful primarily to support solubility and infrared spectra identications.
The index of refraction is equal to the ratio of the sine of the angle of the incident ray to the sine of the angle of the refracted ray angles measured from the normal to the common boundary. In general the refractive index of a substance varies with the frequency of the radiation Summary of Test Method 4. Rinse with water, allow to dry in ast air. C Some modarylic bers cannot be distinguished from acrylic bers in this solubility scheme.
ASTM D – 00a() Standard Test Methods for Identification of Fibers in Textiles
Identication of the ber generic class is made by analysis of the ber spectrum using a decision chart Fig.
Signicance and Use 5. The methods are generally s276 useful for distinguishing bers of the same generic class from different manufacturers or for distinguishing different ber types of the same generic class from one producer.
It is possible for such modications to interfere seriously with the analyses used in these test methods.
Considerable experience and diligence of the analyst may be necessary to resolve satisfactorily these difficulties. NOTE 2—For statements on precision and bias of the standard quantitative test methods for determining physical properties for conrmation of ber identication refer to the cited test method.
The precision and bias of the nonstandard quantitative test methods described are strongly inuenced by the skill of the operator. The limited use of the test methods for qualitative identication cannot justify the effort that would be necessary to determine the precision and bias of the techniques.
Sampling, Selection, Preparation, and Number of Specimens 6. It is possible to make an identication using a sample of less than 10 mg of each type of ber present.
The listed values are for specic bers which warrant the highly precise values given. For identication purposes these values should be regarded as indicating only the relative values of the properties. C Varies, always weak, sometimes negative. D The ber is opaque.
E Ethylene glycol type. F Staple and fully oriented lament yarns FOYpartially oriented POY and undrawn yarns may have much lower values of birefringence and refractive index. I p-ethylene oxybenzoate type. Comparison of the spectra of unknown materials to a proper set of reference spectra of various ber types see 7. In order to accomplish this, it is necessary to consider the following: In such cases it may be impractical to separate the bers mechanically. A selective solvent refer to Table 1 of Test Methods D can be very useful in these cases, if one can be found.
The density gradient column may also be used for separation. An alternative test for identication of an unknown ber is by comparison with properly identied bers used as reference standards. It is desirable to have available authentic samples of the bers to be identied, and it is essential to have those that are unfamiliar.
Purity of Reagents 8.
Standard Test Methods for Identification of Fibers in Textiles
Unless otherwise indicated, it is intended that all reagents shall conform to the specications of the Committee on Analytical Reagents of the American Chemical Society, where such specications are available. Precision and Bias Other techniques such as, microscopical examination or comparison of physical properties are used to conrm the identication or to distinguish between those ber classes anidex, aramid, asbestos, uorocarbon, glass, and novoloid which are not dissolved by any of the reagents used in this scheme.
In practice, bers are generally sufficiently opaque that this is not a serious problem, but it should be guarded against, especially when using m-cresol, which has a refractive index 1.
Wait for the specied period and check to see whether the bers have been dissolved. The bers should be watched during the test to determine whether there might be a mixture of ber types, some of which are soluble and some insoluble.
In addition to other precautions, do not mix reagents or add reagents to a ber solution except as specically indicated in the scheme in Fig.
These procedures should be carried out in a hood and the xstm adequately ventilated. NOTE 4—With the exception of the test to distinguish silk and wool and the melting of Saran, all of the decision points of the scheme Fig. Accordingly, if the ber is dissolved at any point in the analysis, perform subsequent tests on a fresh specimen.
Insoluble specimens may be removed from the solvent, rinsed in distilled water, and used for subsequent analyses, if required by limited sample size. Describe the material s or product s sampled and the method of sampling used. NOTE 5—The internal reection spectroscopy technique is more difficult to use satisfactorily than the KBr disk or lm techniques and it is not recommended for use except by an operator experienced in the technique.
As asm general guide, the lms should be cast thin enough to be nearly transparent. Place the specimen in the sample beam of the instrument and record the spectrum while scanning from 2. Interpretation of Results For identication, the positions of the peaks according to wavelength or wave number should match those of a known reference spectrum Figs.
As an aid in matching spectra, consult the decision chart Fig. Refer to the tabulation of ber physical properties in Table 1 for this purpose. Apparatus, Reagents, and Materials Preparation of Specimens Mix with about mg of powdered KBr and grind in the ball mill for 1 to 2 min. Transfer the ground mixture to a KBr-disk die and press r276 approximately 14 MPa psi pressure for 2 to 5 min.
Cast lms from solution on a rock salt plate using a glass stirring rod and permit the solvent to evaporate. This listing is not meant to exclude other ber types or to restrict the choice of alternative solvents.
The specic gravity of each batch must be determined by a pycnometric technique such as Test Method D or Test Method D Securely tie the ends of the skein and cut off the free ends. Hang the wire hook with its ee end immersed in mL of displacing liquid Fig.
Record the weight of the wire hook, H, to the nearest 0. Simultaneously start the time and immerse the specimen in the liquid. Using a stirring rod, vigorously agitate the sample to remove occluded air. Frequently, several minutes of vigorous effort are required to remove all of the air. Take care that the specimen is immersed completely and that it does not touch the sides of the beaker.
Therefore record the time and weight at about 2-min intervals until at least 20 min total time has elapsed. The procedure described here is applicable only to bers that can be obtained in the form of continuous laments. Several measurements of immersed weight are made over a period of time, until the weight becomes constant or changes very slowly.
The immersed weight is plotted as a xstm of time, and the apparent density obtained by extrapolating to asym time. NOTE 6—The wire size is critical because of surface phenomena; coarser wire has greater surface area and ner wire exes, causing a greater effective surface. Extrapolate the straight-line portion back to zero time, if possible.
Fiber density is the extrapolated apparent density at zero time. An interlaboratory study has been organized.