ASTM E140-07 PDF
ASTM E – Free download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 05/24/ MDT. This standard is issued under the fixed designation E; the number 1 These conversion tables are under the jurisdiction of ASTM. Buy ASTM E HARDNESS CONVERSION TABLES FOR METALS RELATIONSHIP AMONG BRINELL HARDNESS, VICKERS.
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A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. This standard has been approved for use by agencies of the Department of Defense.
These hardness conversion relationships are intended to apply particularly r140-07 the following: Most Rockwell hardness numbers are presented to the nearest 0. Since all converted ast values must be considered approximate, however, all converted Rockwell hardness numbers shall be rounded to the nearest whole number in accordance with Practice E Since all converted hardness values must be considered approximate, however, all converted hardness numbers shall be rounded in accordance with Practice E Each type of hardness test is subject to certain errors, but if precautions are astn observed, the reliability of hardness readings made on instruments of the indentation type will be found comparable.
Differences in sensitivity within the range of a given hardness scale for example, Rockwell B may be greater than between two different scales or types of instruments.
Current edition approved Jan. Originally approved in No further reproductions authorized. Methods for Hardness Determinations 3. NOTE 1—The comparative hardness test done to generate the conversion tables in this standard were preformed in past years using ASTM test methods in effect at the time of testing.
For example, currently both the Rockwell and Brinell hardness standards Test MethodE10 and E18, respectively allow or require the use of tungsten carbide ball indenters; however, all of the ball scale Rockwell hardness tests HRB, HR30T, etc. The use of tungsten carbide balls will produce slightly different hardness results than steel balls.
Therefore, the user is cautioned to consider these differences and to keep in mind the approximate nature of these conversions when applying them to the results of tests using tungsten carbide balls. Apparatus and Reference Standards 4. Principle of Method of Conversion 5. Indentation hardness is not a single fundamental property but a combination of properties, and the contribution of each to the hardness number varies with the type of test. Therefore separate conversion tables are necessary for different materials.
NOTE 2—Hardness conversion values for other metals based on comparative test on similar materials having similar mechanical properties will be added to this standard as the need arises. This is because conversions can be affected by several factors, including the material alloy, grain structure, heat treatment, etc. Even in the case of a table established for a single material, such as the table for cartridge brass, some error is involved depending on composition and methods of processing.
Reporting of Hardness Numbers 7. B Appendix X1 contains equations converting determined hardness scale numbers to Rockwell C hardness numbers for non-austenitic steels.
C The Brinell hardness numbers in parentheses are outside the range recommended for Brinell hardness testing in 8. D These Scleroscope hardness conversions are based on Vickers—Scleroscope hardness relationships developed from Vickers hardness data provided by the National Bureau of Standards for 13 steel reference blocks, Scleroscope hardness values obtained on these blocks by the Shore Instrument and Mfg.
B Appendix X2 contains equations converting determined hardness numbers to Rockwell B hardness numbers for non-austenitic steels. NOTE 2—The use of hardness scales for hardness values shown in parentheses is not recommended since they are beyond the ranges recommended for accuracy. Such values are shown for comparative purposes only, where comparisons may be desired and the recommended machine and scale are not available. TABLE 3 Continued Vickers Hardness Number Knoop Hardness Number Vickers Indenter 1,5,10,kgf HV Knoop Indenter and gf HK A In table headings, kgf or gf refers to total test force.
B Appendix X3 contains equations converting determined hardness scale numbers to Vickers hardness numbers for nickel and high-nickel alloys. These recommendations are designed to limit impression diameters to the range from 2. The Brinell hardness numbers in this conversion table are based on tests using a kgf force. When the kgf force is used for the softer nickel and high-nickel alloys, these conversion relationships do not apply. B Appendix X4 contains equations converting determined hardness scale numbers to Vickers hardness numbers for cartridge brass.
B Satm X5 contains an equation converting determined Brinell hardness numbers to Rockwell B hardness numbers for austenitic steel plate in the annealed condition.
Types,L, L,and Tempers ranged from annealed to extra hard for Typewith a smaller range of tempers for the other types. Test coupon thicknesses ranged from approximately 0. B Appendix X6 contains equations converting determined hardness numbers to Rockwell C and Rockwell B hardness numbers for austenitic stainless steel sheet.
C Observed standard deviation of the interlaboratory test data about the indicated conversion line.
A In table headings, kgf or gf refers to total test force. B Appendix X7 contains equations converting determined hardness scale numbers to Vickers hardness numbers for copper, numbers to inclusive.
B In table headings, kgf or gf refers to total test force. C Appendix X8 contains equations converting determined hardness scale numbers to Vickers hardness numbers for alloyed white irons.
D Ten-millimetre tungsten carbide ball.
Hardness Converter ASTM E ISO | Trelleborg
E Brinell hardness numbers in parentheses are above the maximum hardness recommended by Test Method E10 and are presented for information only. Ball HR W C Appendix X9 contains equations converting determined hardness scale numbers to Brinell numbers for wrought aluminum products. Due to inherent inaccuracies in the conversion process, the converted number should be rounded to the nearest whole number in accordance with Practice E As higher forces are used, the increased strain raises the hardness by an amount that depends on the pretest capacity of the metal for strain hardening.
An annealed metal of high capacity for strain hardening will harden much more in the test than will a cold-worked metal.
For example, an annealed iron and a cold-rolled aluminum alloy may have hardnesses of 71 and 72 HR 15T, respectively. This is true of yellow brasses and low-carbon steels and irons.
It is necessary to base hardness conversions on comparative tests of similar materials that also have very similar mechanical properties. ASTM International takes no position respecting the validity of any patent rights asserted in connection with any item mentioned in this standard.
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