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La masa cierra sus poros con recelo.

Apart from the 16 th -century data for which the corpora only contain 25 years, the average peak of loanwords happens during the 17 th Century, with a These languages together with Basque, a language isolate spoken in the northern part of the Peninsula, occupied and sometimes shared the geographical space of the Peninsula.

This ewpaola more evident when we descend to the scale of years in our data.

They are the opposite of what nationalist mythology supposes them to be, namely the primordial foundations of national culture and the matrices of the national mind. This study supports the claim that language does not stand on its own, but that it rather is the product of a combination of political, social, and economic factors Lapesa We decided on Latin, Iberian substrate and Arabic as forming it, although some linguists and philologists might disagree on the latter.

After lqpesa 17 th Century, the data shows a steep decline that takes the percentage of loanwords to only To be conservative, we counted these items as belonging to the baseline. None of the loanword donor languages and none of the peaks, as we have seen, were fortuitous.

Because of their size, manual efforts of transcription and annotation have made sense. Instituto Caro y Cuervo, This project intends to address four main questions about loanwords in Spanish, namely:. First of all, as we mentioned, literature tends to be more conservative in historja of lexicon descaargar. The second limitation is our data. Therefore, the fact the we see words borrowed from other languages is not necessarily the result of personal or societal bilingualism but of established borrowing processes.


Lenguas imaginadas: Menéndez Pidal, la lingüística hispánica y la configuración del estándar

Two main reasons make the results for English only ,ibro representative of the linguistic reality of Spanish nowadays. For instance, is there a quantifiable increase in the use of Japanese words in Korean between —?

esoaola Spain and Greece have not established direct relations through colonial expansion, wars, or trading in the past centuries other than the one described in Footnote 2. Second, the data ,apesa to be of enough quality at the year level so that we can pinpoint specific years in which the influence is felt and recorded, which due to rhythms of cultural integration and production, it rarely coincides with years of publication of books.

The reasons why we are focusing on written language are several.

One of the notable exceptions is Greek, which appears as the top donor to Spanish. As we have described before, languages borrow all sorts of linguistic components from other languages. If English had been grouped together with other languages, the difference in loanword borrowing from British English and American English to Spanish might have been masked.

While it is true that nowadays there are many loanwords that are fashionable and highly common, we cannot foresee for how long they might last. In the 19 th and 20 th century, Ancient Greek, as the first internationally prestigious language in history Bergua Caverowas often resorted to due to the need to keep up with the rapidly evolving fields of science and technology.

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There are some corpora for spoken Spanish: Espasa-Calpe Argentina, A large population and an extensive territory endowed with manifold national resources, are essential requirements of the normal nationality In section 2, we briefly discuss the history of Spanish as it was formed and became in contact with other languages.

This percentage contained a variety of cases: La lengua, como una necesidad social que es, necesariamente tiende a la universalidad; y la universalidad, una vez adquirida, es irrenunciable. Despite containing several times more tokens ,, 1-grams, and 46, unique lemmasthe NGram dataset was smaller: Juan de la Cuesta, These type of words are simply not common in more casual types of texts but are nevertheless frequent in literature and specialized treaties such as the ones contained in the HathiTrust and Google Books Ngrams databases.


Spanish is a member of the Italic branch of the Indo-European family of languages and is currently spoken by over million speakers as a mother tongue and over 90 million as a second language L2 in several countries in Europe, America and Africa Lewis, Gary and Fennig But these corpora have something in common, in addition to being very well made and well selected: It is precisely because loanwords from Ancient Greek are specialized vocabulary that investigations that focus on casual speech or press corpora might overlook the fact that a great amount of Spanish words were loaned by this language.

The dominance in terms of their frequency of use of words originated in Western and Ancient European languages French and Greek, respectively in HathiTrust and Google NGrams were easily justifiable — both languages gave Spanish a plethora of words that abound in these types of texts.

Languages change and evolve in many respects but one of the aspects that is most obvious to casual observation is how languages change their word-stock Trask Routledge, A possible way in which languages borrow is proposed by Backus in Zenner and Christiansen and Croft The majority of the most prolific donor languages in Figure 1 are not surprising.

This process resulted in a total of almost billion tokens.