ERYTHROPHLEUM IVORENSE PDF
In Côte d’Ivoire water, in which the bark of young branches of Erythrophleum ivorense is crushed, is rubbed on the skin to treat smallpox. Erythrophleum ivorense is a deciduous Tree growing to 30 m (98ft) by 25 m (82ft) at a medium rate. It is hardy to zone (UK) It can fix Nitrogen. Suitable for. Erythrophleum micranthum Don. [family LEGUMINOSAE-CAESALPINIOIDEAE ] Verified by Hutchinson; Dalziel, Erythrophleum guineense [family.
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Email this to a friend Print Share on facebook Tweet this. Showing 0 of 0 comments. Erythrophleum ivorense 1, branch with leaf and inflorescence; 2, fruit. Redrawn and adapted by Achmad Satiri Nurhaman.
Erythrophleum ivorense various aspects obtained from W. Erythrophleum ivorense leafy twig and fruits. Erythrophleum ivorense young plant. Erythrophleum ivorense wood in transverse section. Erythrophleum ivorense wood in radial section.
Erythrophleum ivorense wood in tangential section. Erythrophleum ivorense Aluka – Erythrophleum ivorense Erythrophleum ivorense Erythrophleum ivorense A. Chev x 76 – 25k – gif www. Erythrophleum ivorense Elondo Erythrophleum ivorense x – 7k – jpg www. Erythrophleum ivorense Erythrophleum ivorense x – 15k – jpg www. Erythrophleum ivorense Tali erythrophleum ivorense x 85 – 20k – jpg www.
Erythrophleum ivorense Acacia tall grass savanah Erythrophleum ivorense Acacia tall grass savanah, Erythrophleum ivorense Erythrophleum ivorense x – 4k – gif www. Erythrophleum ivorense Erythrophleum ivorense. A bark extract is taken orally in Sierra Leone as an emetic and laxative, and is applied externally to relieve pain. The bark and sometimes the seeds are widely used as hunting and ordeal poison. In Liberia and Gabon the bark of Erythrophleum ivorense is preferred to that of Erythrophleum suaveolens Guill.
The bark is used as fish poison in Sierra Leone. The wood is quite hard and heavy, and suitable for joinery, flooring, railway sleepers, harbour and dock work, turnery, construction and bridges.
It is also used for boat building and wheel hubs. It makes excellent charcoal and good firewood. A bark decoction added to fermenting palm wine would make it a more potent drink. In trade statistics, the timber of Erythrophleum ivorense and Erythrophleum suaveolens is usually not differentiated.
The major importer is China. The alkaloid content of Erythrophleum ivorense is similar to that of Erythrophleum suaveolens ; only the distribution of the main compounds is different. First investigations yielded the alkaloid erythrophleine, but this was later identified as a mixture of different alkaloids with similar activities. The alkaloids are esters of tricyclic diterpene acids, and 2 main types exist: In addition, compounds have been found in which the amine link is replaced by an amide link, but it is not clear whether these are natural compounds or artefacts.
The bark contains as main components alkaloids of the dimethylaminoethylester type: The alkaloid content of the bark ranges from 0. In high doses, the bark extract is an extremely strong, rapid-acting cardiac poison, in warm-blooded animals causing shortness of breath, seizures and cardiac arrest in a few minutes.
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The alkaloids have a stimulant effect on the heart similar to that of the cardenolides digitoxine from Digitalis and ouabain from Strophanthus gratus Wall. Cassaine and cassaidine have strong anaesthetic and diuretic effects, and increase contractions of the intestine and uterus. Apart from an increase of heart contraction in systole, the alkaloids also demonstrated an increase in diastole.
In addition, cassaidine caused depressive effects, while cassaine caused a violent state of excitation.
Although the alkaloid content in the seeds is markedly lower than in the stem bark, the seeds are more toxic. This strong activity is due to a strong haemolytic saponin, which acts in a synergistic way with the alkaloids. Wood from Erythrophleum ivorense and Erythrophleum suaveolens is not differentiated in trade and the following wood description is applicable to both species.
The heartwood is yellowish brown to reddish brown, darkening on exposure, sometimes striped, clearly demarcated from the 3—6 cm wide, creamy-yellow sapwood. The grain is interlocked, texture coarse.
The wood is moderately lustrous. The wood dries slowly with erythrophlfum risks of distortion and checking. The shrinkage rates from green to oven dry are 5. Once erytthrophleum, the wood is moderately stable in service. The wood is difficult to saw; stellite-tipped sawteeth are recommended. Finishing is generally fair, but planing may be difficult due to interlocked grain.
Pre-boring is necessary for nails erythgophleum screws. The gluing properties are good.
The wood is durable and resistant to fungi, dry wood borers and termites. It is suitable for use in contact with the ground. It is not permeable for preservatives. The sawdust may irritate mucous membranes and may cause allergy and asthma of labourers erythrophkeum sawmills.
Erythrophleum alkaloids have similar pharmacological activities as digitoxine and ouabain.
The timber from Erythrophleum ivorense and Erythrophleum suaveolens is marketed indiscriminately under the trade names: Large tree up to 40 m tall; bole cylindrical, but sometimes fluted at base, with or without buttresses; bark scaly, often fissured, grey, inner bark reddish, granular; young twigs brown hairy. Leaves alternate, bipinnately compound with 2—4 pairs of pinnae; stipules minute; petiole 2—7 cm long, rachis 5—15 cm long; leaflets alternate, 6— 8—14 per pinna, elliptical to ovate, up to 8.
Inflorescence an axillary or terminal panicle consisting of spike-like racemes up to 8 cm long, shortly reddish brown hairy. Flowers bisexual, regular, 5-merous, red-brown; pedicel c.
Seeds ovoid, compressed, c. Erythrophleum comprises about 10 species, 4 or 5 of which occur in continental Africa, 1 in Madagascar, 3 in eastern Asia, and 1 in Australia.
The genus is one of the few Caesalpiniaceae reported to contain alkaloids. Erythrophleum ivorense and Erythrophleum suaveolens share many uses, vernacular names, trade names and properties and therefore confusion is common. Especially the results of earlier pharmacological work are blurred by doubtful identifications. The 2 species differ in ecology, some morphological characteristics and the alkaloid erythrpohleum in the bark. Only in semi-deciduous forest does Erythrophleum ivorense co-occur with Erythrophleum suaveolensfrom where the latter extends into drier habitats like woodland savanna.
However, it is often difficult to distinguish the two species from each other. The leaflets of Erythrophleum suaveolens are often wider, its inflorescences wider often 1. Wood-anatomical description Frythrophleum hardwood codes: Erythrophleum ivorense flowers during the rainy season.
Nodulation was observed in primary rainforest and the rhizobium involved belongs to the genus Bradyrhizobium. Erythrophleum ivorense occurs in evergreen primary and secondary forest and moist semi-deciduous forest.
Erythrophleum ivorense is essentially a tree of old secondary forest. Erythrophleum ivorense has been classified as a non-pioneer light demander. Seedlings are often found in smaller forest gaps. Erythrophleum ivorense can be propagated in nurseries; seed takes 3 weeks to germinate. Erythrophleum ivorense trees usually occur scattered in the forest. In Gabon the average bole volume has been recorded as 1. In Liberia the mean density of trees with a minimum bole diameter of 60 cm is 0.
Reforestation with Erythrophleum ivorense is an option in degraded forests where natural regeneration of economically important species is erythrophlfum. In Gabon the clear-cut method is superior to enrichment planting: Old Erythrophleum ivorense trees very often have heart rot.
The bark of Erythrophleum ivorense is harvested from the wild whenever the need occurs. The logs sink in water and can consequently not be transported by floating along a river. Erythrophleum ivorense is often abundant in West and Central African evergreen forest.
TALI (Erythrophleum ivorense)
Although logging of Erythrophleum ivorense for its timber has shown a distinct increase in Cameroon, there are no indications that the species is under erythrophpeum much pressure yet.
Erythrophleum ivorense contains pharmacologically interesting compounds and further study of its pharmacology is justified. Internal use of unpurified medicines made from Erythrophleum ivorense is extremely dangerous. The differences in active ingredients between individual trees in a single population and the differences in composition related to age of the plant are large.
Although Erythrophleum ivorense has recently gained much importance as a timber tree, especially in Cameroon, comparatively little is known about proper management practices for sustainable harvesting in natural forest.
The useful plants of West Tropical Africa. Volume 3, Families J—L. Tropical timbers of the world. The botanical and phytochemical differentiation between Erythrophleum suaveolens and E.