HETERAKIS GALLINARUM PDF
Pathobiology of Heterakis gallinarum mono-infection and co-infection with Histomonas meleagridis in layer chickens. Schwarz A(1), Gauly M, Abel H, Daş G . We investigated whether density related effects are directly controlling lifetime fecundity of Heterakis gallinarum. Daily total numbers of H. infecting Brazilian turkeys are reported. The intestinal nematode Heterakis gallinarum appeared with a prevalence of 70% in the infected birds.
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Heterakis is a neterakis of parasitic roundworms belonging to the pinworms that infects chickens, turkeys, ducks, geese, grouse, quails, pheasants, guinea fowls and other domestic and wild birds. They are also called cecal worms. They occur worldwide and are very common in chicken: It is more abundant in ggallinarum farming with outdoor run than in industrial production facilities.
The most relevant species for domestic birds are: These worms do not affect dogscats, cattle sheep, goats, horses or swine.
ADW: : INFORMATION
The disease caused by Heterakis worms is called heterakiasis or heterakiosis. Predilection site of adult Heterakis worms is the cecum.
Occasionally they are found also in the gut. Adult Heterakis worms are rather small roundworms, not longer than 15 mm, very thin and of a whitish color. Females are longer than males.
The worms have a tubular digestive system with two openings, the mouth and the anus. They also have a nervous system but no excretory organs and no circulatory systemi. The female ovaries are large and the uteri end in an opening called the vulva, which in these gallinarmu is located close to the middle of the body. Males have tail flaps alae and a copulatory bursa with two unequally long spicules f or attaching to the female during copulation.
Heterakis eggs are not longer than 77 micrometers. Heterakis worms have direct life cycle. Adult female worms in the small intestine pass eggs with the feces about per day heterakks female! Once in the environment infective L2-larvae develop inside the eggs in 1 to 10 weeks, strongly depending on temperature.
Heterakis gallinarum – Wikipedia
These eggs can remain infective in the birds’ litter and the environment for one year and longer and may survive slight frost. Birds become infected after eating infective eggs either directly with contaminated food or water, or indirectly when eating earthworms or flies.
Heteraiis eggs release the larvae in the gut’s lumen in a few hours after ingestion. Hatched larvae reach the cecum one day later.
Some larvae may penetrate the lining of hterakis cecum, but it seems that most do not and complete development to adult worms in the lumen of the cecum after several molts. The prepatent period time between infection and first eggs shed is 3 to 4 heterakia, depending on the worm species and the host. Heterakis infections are not very pathogenic for poultry.
Heavy infections can cause inflammation and thickening of the cecum, appearance of nodules and numerous small bleedings in the cecal wall, especially in turkey. Egg production in layers can be significantly reduced. However, the major problem is that these worms are vectors of Histomonas meleagridisa protozoan parasite that affects chicken, turkey, quails, pheasants and many other birds and is the causative agent of the blackhead diseasealso called histomoniasis or infectious enterohepatitis.
These protozoans remain viable in the eggs. They are particularly harmful and often fatal for turkeys. They can destroy large portions of the gut’s wall and liver tissues. To prevent or at least reduce Heterakis infections it is recommended to keep the birds’ bedding as dry as possible and to frequently change it, because development of the worm’s eggs needs humidity.
Strict hygiene of feeders and drinkers are a must to avoid or reduce their contamination with eggs. Pasture rotation is also recommended. All these measures are especially important for young birds, particularly for turkeys, which are likely to suffer more from Heterakis infections.
Heteraois are highly recommended in flocks with a past history of histomoniasis. Numerous classic broad spectrum anthelmintics are effective against Heterakis worms, e.
Some compounds with a narrower spectrum are also effective against these worms, e. This means hetsrakis they have a short residual effector no residual effect at all. As a consequence treated animals are cured from worms but do not remain protected against new infections. To ensure that they remain worm-free the animals have to be dewormed periodically, depending on the local epidemiological, ecological and climatic conditions.
So far no vaccine is available against Heterakis worms. To learn more about vaccines against heterakiz of livestock and pets c lick here. Biological control of Heterakis worms i. You may be interested in an article in this site on medicinal plants against external and internal parasites.
There are a no reports on confirmed resistance of Heterakis worms to anthelmintics. This means that if an anthelmintic fails to achieve the expected efficacy against Heterakis worms it is most likely that either the product was unsuited for the control of these wormsor it was used incorrectly.
Ask heetrakis veterinary doctor! If available, follow more specific national or regional recommendations for Heterakis control.
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